nutrition

How Much Protein Do You Really Need?

Introduction

The topic of protein can be a confusing one. One day you might read an article about the latest high-protein diet fad and wonder if you should join in, the next you might watch a documentary about plant-based diets and question if you are actually eating too much protein. If this resonates with you or if you are simply an active individual wondering what you need to know about protein, read on!

 how much protein do you really need

Purpose & Function of Protein

Dietary proteins are essential for human health and responsible for things like immune function, enzymatic reactions, cell growth & development, transport and "communication" (as in the case of hormones). This table provides a good overview of each of those "jobs" if you're curious for some specific examples of each.

You have most-likely heard at some point throughout schooling that protein acts as the "building blocks" of our bodies. It's especially important post-workout for repairing/rebuilding muscle tissue. 

Another more subjective reason for including protein is the satisfaction factor. It adds staying power to meals and snacks so you aren't thinking about food again an hour later. I often find that when people skimp on protein at breakfast, it has a cascade effect and can lead to increased cravings throughout the day along with a feeling of never being *truly* satisfied. 

Complete vs. incomplete

You may have heard the words "complete" and "incomplete" in regards to protein. These terms indicate whether or not a particular food contains all of the essential amino acids (complete) or only some of them (incomplete).

Why is this important? 

There are 20 different amino acids and 9 of those are considered "essential" meaning that our body doesn't synthesize them and we need to consume these through our food. If you eat a plant-based diet (and subsequently incomplete protein sources), it's important to consume a variety of proteins to make sure you are getting each of those amino acids throughout the day. 

 chicken and zucchini kabobs

Am I Getting Enough?

It's very rare to see protein deficiency in any developed country (except in the clinical setting when patients are either unable or refusing to eat for extended periods of time, at which point nutrition support is initiated). Basically, if you are meeting your energy needs, you are likely meeting your protein needs too. 

That said, many of my coaching clients tend to go a little low on dietary protein intake, especially if they follow a vegetarian eating pattern, without even realizing it. It's not hard to meet your needs with a plant-based or mostly plant-based diet, it just takes a little bit more planning. It's also important to know the difference between meeting protein needs for general health, and meeting protein needs if your goal is to build lean body mass and optimize a workout.

I often find that when people skimp on protein on breakfast, it has a cascade effect and can lead to afternoon sugar cravings along with a feeling of never being truly satisfied. 

— Leanne Ray, MS, RDN

The Recommended Dietary Allowance or "RDA" for protein is 0.8 grams per kilogram body weight (source).

So to calculate this, take your weight in pounds, divide it by 2.2 (to get your body weight in kilograms) then multiply that number by 0.8. This is the minimum amount of protein you should shoot for each day, but it's not necessarily the optimal amount. 

A registered dietitian can help you determine a protein range that will best meet your needs (based on things like activity level and fitness goals), but this can be a starting point. In addition to amount, there are two other important factors to consider: timing & variety. 

  1. Timing. Spread out your protein intake throughout the day (as opposed to moderate amounts at breakfast/lunch followed by a huge steak at dinner). This seems to promote muscle protein synthesis better than the alternative. (source)
     
  2. Variety. As mentioned above, make sure you get a variety of sources especially if you eat plant-based so you can diversify your amino acid intake. All food provides different benefits so this is a good rule of thumb no matter what the macronutrient - there is no "best" choice. 

Dietary Sources of Protein

By now you might be wondering about protein-rich food sources. Most people are well-aware that meat has protein, but some other options may surprise you. Here is a short list of where you can find it and about how many grams one serving contains:

Food (protein):

Chicken, 3 oz (20 grams)

Siggi's 2% Yogurt, 5 oz (15 grams)

Tuna, 2 oz (14 grams)

Cottage Cheese, 1/2 cup (14 grams)

Red lentils, 50 gm serving (13 grams)

Hemp hearts, 3 Tbsp (10 grams)

Peanut butter, 2 Tbsp (8 grams)

Black beans, 1/2 cup (7 grams)

Whole wheat pasta, 2 oz (7 grams)

Egg, 1 whole (6 grams)

Old-fashioned rolled oats, 1/2 cup (5 grams)

 smoked salmon toast with zucchini 

What about protein supplements?

Supplements can be a great option for active individuals who have higher protein needs and find it challenging to meet them through food. From a volume perspective it's a lot easier to take in 20 grams of protein through a smoothie with some whey powder added in, than it is to consume a full plated meal. 

I still advocate for using "food first" whenever possible. Supplements can be expensive and they don't contain any magical components compared to food. The nutrients in whole food often work in synergy in the body so by isolating single components, we might be missing out on some of the benefits of the original source. Here's an example:

Smoothie #1

  • 1 cup vanilla almond milk
  • 1 serving whey protein
  • 1 banana

Nutrition // 290 cals, 18 g protein

Smoothie #2

  • 1 cup 1% milk
  • 1/2 frozen banana
  • 1 Tbsp peanut butter
  • 1.5 Tbsp hemp hearts

Nutrition // 318 cals, 18 g protein

Both provide the same amount of energy and protein but smoothie #2 gives you all of the nutritional benefits of milk, plus added heart-healthy fats, fiber, iron and omega 3s from a combination of the peanut butter and hemp hearts. Remember that this isn't to say one is "better", but one might be more appropriate based on your situation.


 eggs for breakfast with muffin and iced coffee

Challenge Time!

I find that breakfast is usually the hardest when it comes to meeting protein needs. 

Join my 'Like a PRO' challenge (starts 9/10) for some motivation and accountability to work on this habit and notice how a small change impacts your entire day. It's completely free!

PRIZES // One of my favorite ways to to start the day is with Kodiak Cakes so I'm excited to share that they are providing a prize pack for one lucky challenge participant! It will include two different pancake mixes along with some Kodiak Cakes swag. 

Get all of the challenge details here.

Join my Like a PRO Challenge

Provide your email address and I'll add your name to the challenge list, plus send you the link to the tracking sheet. Let's do it!

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Think Outside the Box with Nut Butter

 peanut butter and banana toast

Nut butter is one of the healthiest and most versatile ingredients in your kitchen - are you using it to its full potential? Today I am doing a deeper dive into the health benefits of this superfood staple plus an overview of its many culinary uses outside of the classic PB&J.

The Health Benefits 

While protein is generally the frequently cited nutritional quality of nut butter, there are so many more reasons for incorporating it. First, nuts are commonly known as being a rich source of “healthy” fat (the good stuff). In technical terms, most varieties are comprised of mostly monounsaturated fat, also known as the “good” fat that has a beneficial effect on our blood cholesterol levels by lowering LDL levels and simultaneously increasing our HDL levels.

According to the literature, adding nuts daily can also slash your risk for developing heart disease, decrease your risk for type 2 diabetes, total cancer and all-cause mortality. The mechanisms behind these benefits are not entirely known, but science suggests that nuts have a beneficial effect on inflammatory markers which are a contributing factor to several chronic diseases. Many varieties of nuts are also high in magnesium which is beneficial for heart health. Plant sterols and their beneficial effect on endothelial function may also play a role.

It's also hard to ignore that many of the world’s most well-researched eating patterns include nuts as a staple including the highly regarded Mediterranean diet, the blood-pressure lowering DASH plan, and one that has been gaining popularity in recent years - the MIND diet - which may be effective in decreasing risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease later in life. Suffice to say, most of us should be eating more nuts and seeds (unless you have an allergy of course) and nut butters can be a fabulous and delicious way to accomplish this. 

But does it cause weight gain?

This is your friendly reminder that fat is not the dietary villain it was once made out to be. In fact, fat provides greater satiety, adds flavor and a pleasant mouthfeel to any dish and a small amount goes a long way on the flavor front. Contrary to what was once thought, consumption of nuts and nut butters is actually associated with improved weight control, likely because of the fiber and fullness factor.

When targeting real food sources of fat (as opposed to highly processed snacks or fast food) fat content is not something that the general healthy person needs to stress over, especially if you are filling your plate with a diverse selection of foods and are mindful of the types of fat you are regularly consuming. Of course with most foods, moderation is key as nut butter is calorically dense.

Not sure what a standard serving of nut butter looks like? Break out the measuring spoons to give yourself a visual the first few times, then you can eyeball it from there. Think of a two tablespoon portion to be about the size of a golf ball for reference.

Going Beyond Peanut

Now, the small corner of a grocery store shelf that was once filled with the brands of your childhood now takes up almost an entire aisle in the modern supermarket. In addition to the classics you will find a plethora of varieties and flavor combinations including peanut, almond, walnut, sunflower seed, sesame seed (most commonly referred to as tahini) and even hazelnut, many of which often incorporate fun, indulgent and/or “superfood” mix-ins. Anything from cocoa powder to cinnamon raisin, honey to maple syrup to white chocolate and even coffee beans are used as flavor enhancers. The fancier the add-ins, the pricier it usually is so there’s no shame in keeping it simple.

Curious about the differences? Here are six different nut butters you might come across along with nutrition highlights and primary uses for each:


Peanut

  • Nutrition highlights: peanut butter is the highest protein choice with 8 grams per two tablespoon serving.
  • Primary uses: smear it on a honeycrisp apple, try it in a smoothie, or use it as the base of a sauce for Asian noodle dishes (I recommend creamy for this).

Almond

  • Nutrition highlights: almond butter is a good source of hard-to-come-by magnesium, a mineral that supports the immune system and helps regulate blood glucose. Almond butter is also a good source of vitamin E, which is also an antioxidant.
  • Primary uses: drizzle it over oatmeal, use as a dip for sliced pears, or as a binder and thickener in baked goods and energy balls.

Walnut

  • Nutrition highlights: in addition to all of the usual suspects, walnuts are unique because they contain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the plant source of omega-3 fatty acids which are anti-inflammatory and beneficial for brain health.
  • Primary uses: since walnut butter tends to have a thicker, more grainy texture than some of the other options, try it as a spread on toast or straight up.

Sunflower

  • Nutrition highlights: sunflower seed butter provides zinc, in addition to folate and vitamin B6 (both of which help form red blood cells).
  • Primary uses: sunflower seed butter is a great alternative for anyone with peanut or tree nut allergies and can be substituted in any of the above scenarios. 

Sesame (Tahini)

  • Nutrition highlights: good plant-based source of calcium along with magnesium and iron.
  • Primary uses: salad dressings or sauces, as a key ingredient in hummus, or to add a savory element to traditionally sweet snacks (like these - hello!).
 sweet potato with tahini sauce

Hazelnut

  • Nutrition highlights: rich in iron, magnesium and vitamin B6
  • Primary uses: since hazelnuts are most commonly associated with chocolate versions, spread it on strawberries to satisfy your sweet tooth while still reaping some nutritional benefits at the same time.

Should I Go Raw?

Some wonder if the nutrient profile is impacted by processing methods and like any food on the market, the answer is… sometimes. Have you ever noticed that most nut butters are available in “raw” versions in addition to their conventional counterparts? This essentially means that the nut or seed did not undergo any sort of roasting process before it was grinded down into the final product.

In terms of which one is the nutritionally superior choice, heat doesn’t seem to make a significant impact on macro or micronutrient content. However, heat can release potentially harmful compounds (as is the case with most foods when exposed to high heat). In the amount that nut butter is traditionally consumed, this shouldn’t be worrisome to the average person. Raw versions are also significantly more expensive and go rancid quicker, so if that deters you from purchasing it, go for the roasted over avoiding nut butter altogether because #healthbenefits. Experiment with the flavor profile of each as they are a quite different from each other.

Culinary Potential

Besides being a portable, shelf-stable and convenient source of protein, nut butters also have serious culinary appeal for use in all sorts of different recipes. Making nut butter from scratch is fairly straightforward, although a bit messy and time-consuming (and hey, the store-bought version is pretty darn convenient and affordable so I won’t judge if you opt for that instead). 

Some lesser known ways to incorporate it include sauces and dressings, stirring in to soups for creaminess and nuttiness, or adding it to smoothies for extra nutrition. You can also incorporate it into your favorite baked goods for a thickening agent and an extra boost of heart-healthy fat, fiber and protein.

This peanut butter banana muffin in particular puts a healthy spin on a classic, using natural peanut butter, flax seed and greek yogurt to pump up the nutrition. There's just enough chocolate chips to add some sweetness without making them dessert and it might just be your new favorite grab-and-go breakfast option in a pinch. Pro tip: pair it with a hard-boiled egg or two and a piece of fresh produce on your way out the door for even more staying power.

 peanut butter banana chocolate chip muffins

Choose Wisely

While there is definitely no shortage of options to choose from when in the market for nut butter, remember to keep in mind that many of the available versions can be more dessert-like than breakfast staple and it’s a good idea to be mindful of that. No "good" or "bad" necessarily, but it's always helpful to be in the know.

In addition to sugar content, checking for nut butters free of added oils is another way to make sure you are getting the most bang for your buck nutritionally without extras that have a potentially negative impact on health (we’re looking at you, partially hydrogenated). While those chocolate and honey studded versions can be a fun treat, a good rule of thumb is to keep it simple for your go-to spread of choice for daily use. Nuts or seeds, plus some salt to bring out the flavor, are really the only must-have ingredients. And why mess with a good thing?

Have a favorite nut butter? Tell Me about it in the comments along with how you love to use it!

References:

Kim Y, Keogh JB, and Clifton PM. Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions. Nutrients. 2017;9(11): 1271. Retreived from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707743/.

 D, Keum N, Giovannucci E, Fadnes LT, Boffetta P, Greenwood DC, Tonstad S, Vatten LJ, Riboli E, and Norat T.  Nut consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMC Med.2016; 14: 207. Retreived from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5137221/.

U.S. National Library of Medicine. MedlinePlus. Minerals. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/minerals.html.

U.S. National Library of Medicine. MedlinePlus. Vitamins. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/vitamins.html.

 

How Can You 'Go Further with Food' this Month?

Happy first day of National Nutrition Month®! You might not have even known today was such a special day until now but fear not, I'll give you the inside scoop. 

 national nutrition month 2018

Each year the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics celebrates nutrition and RDNs in the month of March, coming up with a theme and related key messages. This year's theme is "Go Further with Food" which can be interpreted in a variety of ways, but to me really reinforces the importance of decreasing food waste and making your food choices work for you in multiple ways including taste, nutrition and social engagement.

The theme and key messages really resonate with me this year. Here are the messages plus some of my thoughts!

Include a variety of healthful foods from all of the food groups on a regular basis.

Variety is something that can easily get overlooked when it comes to nutrition because we often get mesmerized with the latest buzz word or super food. A health-promoting diet is not collagen or matcha you guys, it's powered by plants, variety, flexibility and enjoyment! The more varied your diet is, the more likely it is that you are regularly meeting your basic nutrition needs. 

 kaos pizza in denver colorado

Consider the foods you have on hand before buying more at the store.

Food waste continues to top the list of food trends for the year and for really good reason. It's so interesting to see large companies prioritizing this issue too. As an example, I recently read an NPR article that talked about how the food company Forager makes cold-pressed juices and then uses the leftover pulp for snacks like crackers and chips. How cool is that? 

I am also noticing that food bloggers are creating more recipes that incorporate "scraps" that are typically tossed. Case in point, from two of my favorite RDN blog ladies: Carrot Top Chimichurri and Vegetarian Mushroom Broth

Buy only the amount that can be eaten or frozen within a few days and plan ways to use leftovers later in the week.

It can be really tempting to buy half the store when you grocery shop so you don't have to go back for several weeks, but shopping more frequently has perks. Instead of trying to avoid the grocery store, try to streamline your meal planning and shopping process so you get the best of both worlds. 

Related: How to Get Organized with Meal Planning

 raw unpeeled carrots

Be mindful of portion sizes. Eat and drink the amount that’s right for you.

While portion size recommendations seem to be on the out in terms of nutrition advice, eating the amount that's "right for you" is something everyone can get on board with. It can be tough to determine what "right" actually means at any given time but learning to optimize your food environment, tune into your hunger/satiety signals and honor taste preferences can be a great start. 

Continue to use good food safety practices.

Did you know that an estimated 48 million people get sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die from foodborne diseases each year in the United States? (1) So much media attention puts the spotlight on topics like agricultural methods and ingredients but the importance of food safety is hugely undervalued. For more information on this, check out this site

 smith rock ascent 

Find activities that you enjoy and be physically active most days of the week.

This goes back to that whole "stop forcing yourself to do exercise that you hate" thing that I swear by. There's a difference between challenging yourself and being miserable. Learning to differentiate the two is a total game-changer. 

Realize the benefits of healthy eating by consulting with a registered dietitian nutritionist.

RDNs can provide sound, easy-to-follow personalized nutrition advice to meet your lifestyle, preferences and health-related needs. I don't mean to toot my own horn here (or maybe I do) but I think dietitians are a pretty talented and compassionate group of professionals. If you want or need some more individualized nutrition advice, I would highly recommend working with one!

Which one of the key messages resonates most with you and why?

Sources:
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Burden of Foodborne Illness Overview. https://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/estimates-overview.html